The IBF and WBA heavyweight champion was recognised for his achievements for the 12 months from August 2016, in which he successfully defended his IBF title against Eric Molina before winning that of the WBA against Wladimir Klitschko.
Tony Bellew, George Groves, Terry Flanagan, Lee Selby and Kal Yafai were also in contention.
The Trainer of the Year was Rob McCracken, who oversaw 27-year-old Joshua’s victories, and who was also awarded the Dennie Mancini Trophy.
Joshua-Klitschko, in which both fighters suffered knockdowns before Joshua eventually stopped the Ukrainian in the 11th round at Wembley Stadium, was named Contest of the Year.
The award for Overseas Boxer of the Year went to America’s Errol Spence, who in May defeated Kell Brook in 11 rounds to win the IBF welterweight title.